Siberian shamanistic traditions among the Kham Magar of Nepal

The Kham-Magars follow a transhumant pattern of life, maintaining permanent villages and a few fields for small scale cultivation, but travelling extensively most of the year with flocks of sheep and goats. Living relatively isolated from the mainstream of commerce and the influx of Indo-Aryan settlement, they have, as opposed to their kinsmen in the east, been only lightly touched by the influence of Hinduism. Their religious attitude is based primarily on an animistic view of nature – the view that the affairs of men are affected by spirits, and that certain men are capable of entering into communication with these spirits and serve as functionaries between man and the spirit world.

For more information click the following link:
https://lib.icimod.org/record/9603

The Gurkhas, Eden Vansittart

Vansittart, Eden, The Gurkhas, Anmol Publications, New Delhi, India, Reprint 1993
Book review by Dr. Govind Prasad Thapa

The Western division is inhabited by Doti and other non-Gurkha tribes and until the close of the last century was divided in, 22 separate principalities which were collectively called the Baisi Raj and were all tributary to the Raja of ‘Yumila’-Jumla.

Baisi is derived from Bais (twenty two). The names of these principalities were-
Jumla, Jagwikot, Chain, Acham, Rugham, Musikot, Roalpa, Mallijanta, Balhang, Daelekh, Darimeka, Doti, Sallyan, Bamphi, Mellianta, Jehari, Kalagaon, Goriakot, Gutam, Gajur, Jajarkot, Bilaspur.(p. 3)

Baisi is derived from Bais (twenty two). The names of these principalities were-
Jumla, Jagwikot, Chain, Acham, Rugham, Musikot, Roalpa, Mallijanta, Balhang, Daelekh, Darimeka, Doti, Sallyan, Bamphi, Mellianta, Jehari, Kalagaon, Goriakot, Gutam, Gajur, Jajarkot, Bilaspur.(p. 3)  

Towards the close of the last century the Central Division included in its limits, besides the Kingdom of Gurkha proper, 24 other independent principalities, collectively called the Chaubisia Raj, or ‘country of the 24 kings’. These principalities were called- 

Lamzung, Tanhung, Golkot, Malibam, Sathung, Garhun, Rising, Ghiring, Deorali, Palpa, Pokhra, Bhirkot, Butwal, Gulmi, Nuwakeot, Kashi, Isma, Dharkot, Musikot, Argha, Pyung, Latahung, Kaikho, Piuthan. Previous to the conquest of the western hill by Gurkhas, Jumla was the chief of the 46 principalities into which the country between the Kali and the province of Gurkha proper was divided, and all of which were nominally tributary to the Raja of Jumla.(p. 4)  

This book introduces Nepal-its geography, people, economy, culture and history. It also tells about the recruitment of Gorkhas into British army. The author lists the races of aboriginal stock of Nepal—”The aboriginal stock of Nepal is most undoubtedly Mongolian. This fact is inscribed in very plain characters, in their faces, forms, and languages. Amongst the aborigines of Nepal must be counted the Magars, Gurungs, Newars, Sunwars, Khambus, Yakhas, Yakthumbas, Limbus, Murmis, and Lepchas. (p.6) 

……The most ancient records would seem to prove that Nepal was originally inhabited by Mongolians. Probably from one of the great waves of Mongolian conquest, which spread through the breadth of Asia from east to west, some side wave was washed over the bleak snows of the mighty Himalayas into the fertile plains and valleys of Nepal. Finding here a cool and bracing climate and fertile soil, this mass of Mongolians settled down and adopted the country as their own. But again, the southern boundary of Nepal rested on India, from whence continual streamlets of natives were finding their way into Nepal. (p. 8-9)  

….In the Saka year 811, and Nepal Sambat 9(AD 889) on the 7th Sravara Sudi, a Saturday, Nanya, Deva Raja came from the south Karnataki country and entered Nepal. He brought with him the Saka Sahkala era and introduced it. Amongst the troops that there with him were Newars, from a country called Nayeva, who were Brahmaputra Chattris and Achars. He defeated the Malla Rajas, and established his court at Bhaktapur or Bhatgaon, he ruled over it as well as over Lalitapattan (present Patan), and Kantipur or Katmandu, and established a dynasty, which lasted about 220 years and gave six kings. The sixth and last king of this dynasty, by name Hari Deva, had at this time (about 1100 AD) a Magar in his service, who through the machinations of the ministers, was dismissed. This man returned to his home and praised Nepal as having houses with golden roofs and golden pranalis or dharas. The Magar Raja, by name Mukunda Sena, a brave and powerful monarch, having heard of this, came to Nepal from the west with a large number of mounted troops, and subdued Hari Deva, the son of Rama Sinha Deva. Of the Nepalese troops some were slain and others fled. Great confusion reigned in the three cities. The victorious soldiers broke and disfigured the images of the gods and sent the Bhairava, in front of Machindranatha, to their own country, Palpa and Botwal. With this Raja the Khas and Magar castes came to Nepal. These men having no mercy, committed great sins, and the southern face of Pashupati showed its frightful teeth, and sent a goddess named Maha-mari (pestilence) who, within a forthnight, cleared the country of the troops of Mukunda Sena. The Raja alone escaped to the east in disguise. On his way back to his own country he arrived at Devighat and died there.(pp. 15-16)  

Social relations appear to be governed more by custom, than by the fixed rules, and superstition prevails so widely that the most ordinary occurrences of everyday life are referred to supernatural agency, frequently to the malevolent action of some demon. The writer writes that information on “Magars, Gurungs, and Thakurs are fairly complete and correct. The lists of Khas, Limbus, Rais, Sunuwars, and Murmis are undoubtedly incomplete, and perhaps in parts incorrect.” The writer has given chapter VI to details on Magars.  

The writer has argued that, “….the most ancient records would seem to prove that Nepal was originally inhabitated by Mongolians. Probably from one of the great waves of Mongolian conquest, which spread through the breadth of Asia from east to west, some side wave was washed over the bleaks snows of the mighty Himalayas into the fertile plains and valleys of Nepal…the northern wave, which originally peopled Nepal, probably consisted of a most uncivilized,, ignorant race with, perhaps, no religion at all. Those who came from south, on the other hand, were Hindus, whose religion, even then, was an old established one, and who were famous for their intelligence and civilization.

“Of very ancient Magar history we know nothing, and the first time that they came into prominence as a great power is about AD 1100, when we hear that Mukunda Sena, the Magar King of Palpa and Botwal, invaded and conquered the Nepal Valley, and committed terrible atrocities during the reign of Hari Deva, King of Nepal. The principal seat of Magars was most of the central and lower parts of the mountain between the Jingrak (Rapti) of Gorakhpur) and Marsiandi rivers. That they resided about Palpa from time immemorial is well-known. Doctor F Hamilton in his book published in 1819 says that the Magars, who resided to the west of the Gandak river, seem to have received the Rajputs princes with much cordiality. Until the arrival of the Rajputs and Brahmans, the hill tribes seem all to have eaten every kind of animal food, including the cow. Each tribe appears to have originally to have a priesthood and duties peculiar to itself, and to have worshipped chiefly ghosts.”

“The Magars have for many centuries more or less admitted the supremacy of the doctrines of the Brahmans, and consequently they have adopted many Rajput customs, ceremonies, and names. The Gurungs also, but to a very much lesser degree, have borrowed from the Rajputs, but this does not give either of two tribes any claim to any other descent than Mongolian.

“Owing to the geographical positions of the tract of country inhabited by the Magars, they were the first to receive immigrants from the plains of India, and thus conversions were more numerous amongst the Magars than any of the other hill tribes living further north or east. 

“….Hence we find Magars many high-born titles such as Surajvansi, Chandrvansi etc., etc., which undoubtedly never existed amongst the Magar themselves, but were introduced from India. Some of the Magars having been converted assumed the sacred thread, whilst others did not; hence we find Ghartis, Ranas, and Thapas, who appear as tribes belonging both to the Magars and to the Khas.” p.81

“Makwanpur originally formed part of the estate of the Ruler of Palpa. There is no doubt that Makunda Sen possessed very extensive dominions, but on his death he devided his kingdom amongst his four sons. To the youngest, Lohanga by name, Makwanpur was given, a mountain chief, by name Bajuhang Rai, joined Lohanga with all his Kirant troops, and they conquered all the petty independent principalities lying to the east of Makwanpur and took possession of Bissipur.”

Bajuhang was killed during these wars, and his son, relinquishing the title of Hang, in its stead took that of Chautaria, and all his successors assumed Hindu names.

Lohanga now possessed a very extensive territory reaching from Mahananda in the east to Adiya on the west, and from Tibet to Julagar, near Purneah.

One of Lohanga’s successors was called Subha Sen, and two sons, who on their father’s death divided the kingdom. In 1774 the Gurkha’s overran the country. Vansittart..p99-100

Vansittart quotes Doctor F. Hamilton on Gurkha family: “In 1802 Doctor F. Hamilton writes: ‘The first persons of the Gurkha family, of whom I have heard, were two brothers, named Khancha and Mincha, words altogether barbarous, denoting their descent from a Magar family, and not from the Pamars, as they pretend'”.p.24

Vansittart claims that “Khancha was the founder of the imperial branch of the family, viz., they remained Magars. Mincha was the Chief of Nayakot, and adopted the Hindu rules of purity, and his descendants intermarried with the best families although not without creating disgust.” He further asserts that “Kulmandan, the son of Jagdeva, obtained sovereignty over Kaski, and having pleased the Mahomedan Emperor, received from him the title of Sah.”p. 24

…..The famous Prime Minister Bhim Sen was the descendant of a Magar Thapa, as was also General Amar Sing.(p. 67)  

To the north and to the west of Sallyan, numbers of Matwala Khas are to be found. They are rarely if ever found to the east of the Gandak  river. There can be no doubt that this race found its origin somewhere about Sallyan or perhaps still further west. The Matwala Khas is generally the progeny of a Khas of Western Nepal with a Magar woman of Western Nepal. If the woman happens to belong to the Rana clan of the Magar tribe, the progeny is then called a Bhat Rana. The Matwala Khas does not wear the thread. He eats and drinks and in every way assimilates himself with the Magars and Gurungs. He invariably claims to be a Magar. Amongst the Matwala Khas are to be found those who call themselves Bohra, Roka, Chohan, Jhankri, etc. These are easy to identify, but it is more difficult to find out a Matwala who calls himself a Thapa. His strong Magar appearance, his not wearing the thread, and his eating and drinking freely with the real Magars, all tend to prove him to be what he almost invariably claims to be, viz., a real Magar. The writer has found men in the ranks who for years had served as and been considered Magars, but who really were Matwala Khas. Some very excellent results are obtained amongst the Matwala Khas, although the greater proportion are coarse-bred and undesirable.(p. 70)  

Of very ancient Magar history we know nothing, and the first time that they came into prominence as a great power is about AD 1100, when hear that Mukunda Sena, the Magar King of Palpa and Botwal, invaded and conquered the Nepal Valley, and committed terrible atrocities during the reign of Hari Deva, King of Nepal. 

The principal seat of the Magars was most of the central and lower parts of the mountains between the Jhingrak ( Rapti of Gorakhpur) and Marsiangdi rivers. That they resided about Palpa from time immemorial is well known. Doctor F. Hamilton in book published in 1819 says that the Magars, who resided to the west of the Gandak River, seem to have received the Rajput princes with much cordiality. 

Until the arrival of Rajputs and Brahmans, the hill tribes seem all to have eaten every kind of animal food, including the cow. Each tribe appears originally to have had a priesthood and duties peculiar to itself, and to have worshipped chiefly ghosts. 

The Magars have for many centuries more or less admitted the supremacy of the doctrines of the Brahmans, and consequently they have adopted many Rajput customs, ceremonies, and names. The Gurungs also, but to a very much lesser degree, have borrowed from Rajputs, but this does not give either of these two tribes any claim to any other descent than Mongolian. 

Owing to the geographical position of the tract of country inhabited by the Magars, they were the first to receive immigrants from the plains of India, and thus conversions were more numerous amongst the Magars than any of the other tribes living further north or east.

At other place the writer claims that, “The famous Prime Minister Bhim Sen was the descendant of a Magar Thapa, as was also General Amar Sing.”p. 67

Though this book was written as guidebook for the purpose of British Officers who were engaged in the recruitment of Nepali, this book also covers information on many other aspects, history, culture, people, and geography of Nepal. So, this book will be very useful for the pursuit of further research on the people’s history of Nepal.

Bhakti Thapa: Neglected History

Historian L.F. Stiller has written that during the regency of Bahadur Shah Nepal passed from the status of an insignificant state to that of formidable power in the South Asian Sub-continent

https://www.spotlightnepal.com/2021/03/11/bhakti-thapa-neglected-history/

History sees the present in the light of the past. Famous German historian Leopold von Ranke, founder of modern source based history has said ” History has been assigned the office of judging the past , instructing the present for the benefit of the future ages”.

Acknowledging the significance of great role played by various individuals in the past British Historian J.H. Plumb has said ” History seeks to deepen understanding about men and society not for its own sake but in the hope that a profound awareness will help to mould human attitudes and human action”.

Unfortunately, our society is not seen to be interested to care about our glorious past history and draw inspiration even from the life of a person like Bhakti Thapa, who had played a key role in unifying the almost entire present day western Nepal and still further to the west up to Sutlez river now in India. Ultimately he had sacrificed his life in Deothal Battle when he was already 74 years old defending our country against British colonialism, which was the greatest evil of that time.

From Insignificant State to a Formidable Power

Historian L.F. Stiller has written that during the regency of Bahadur Shah Nepal passed from the status of an insignificant state to that of a formidable power in the South Asian Sub-continent. Published LALMOHARS reveal that almost throughout Bahadur Shah’s regency Bhakti Thapa had played decisive role in conduct of unification campaign. Judging from the opinion of historian Hamilton about geopolitical situation of that time perhaps Nepal’s western boundary would not have expanded beyond the Kali-Gandaki river if Bhakti Thapa would not have been at the helm of the unification operation.

LALMOHARS, Unification and Bhakti Thapa

Bhakti Thapa’s crucial role in transforming Nepal’s status from an insignificant state to that of a formidable power in the South Asian Sub-continent became known in 1960s after Historian Narahari Nath published the official LALMOHAR documents addressed to Bhakti Thapa bearing the royal seal in the magazine HIMABATKHANDA. Foreign historians were quick to rewrite the Nepalese history of that period based on those published LALMOHARS. Unfortunately our society is not seen caring to know about the true past history of that time of our country and the vital role of Bhakti Thapa in unification of our country.

Paramount Role of Bhakti Thapa

Historian C.P. Khanduri has written “Leadership and character were the hallmarks of the Gorkhas that got them victorious. Bhakti Thapa had impressed the Gorkha commanders during the War of Consolidation and joined those who were to be the eventual rulers of Nepal. Kaji Amar Singh Thapa had treaded in the footsteps of Bhakti Thapa.”

Bhakti Thapa had assumed in 1789 the leadership role of the campaign to unify western Nepal at the end of the critical period of two years long confrontation when the forces of Jumla had proven itself impenetrable barrier on the path of further expansion of then Nepal to the west

From Jumla towards Garwal

Historian Stiller has written “Jumla was the key to the west. Jumla had collected an army to face the Gorkhalis, a force far superior to anything the Gorkhalis could put in the field at that time. It is not surprising that Jumla with such an army was able to resist Gorkhali army for more than two years”. .

According to historian Hamilton an outright attack against the Jumla force would have ended up sadly. Further extension of Nepal to the west would have been totally unthinkable without subduing the resistance of Jumla. Thus it was certain that Nepal’s western boundary would never have extended beyond the present day Gandaki zone or the Kali-Gandaki river if Bhakti Thapa would not have assumed the leadership role right from the Jumla operation.

Bhakti Thapa’s Ingenuity

Bhakti Thapa had demonstrated his exceptionally brilliant skill and ingenuity in defeating Jumla kingdom. He totally changed the strategy of his predecessors and led the attack on Jumla from the difficult northern side. The result was a swift victory and life of many people was saved.

It is stated in the LALMOHARS sent to Bhakti Thapa after the accomplishment of the Jumla operation that he had been assigned for the job believing in his high performance capability.

Operations at Bhakti Thapa’s Discretion

According to the LALMOHAR Bhakti Thapa was strongly cautioned that his resources are quite limited and thus he should not advance beyond Jumla. Bhakti Thapa is seen to have completely ignored the instruction of the Capital by advancing the unification operation further to the west. Poet Shakti Ballab in a poem in Sanskrit has written about Bhakti Thapa’s campaign to unite Doti soon after Jumla operation. After the Doti operation Kumaun and Garwal were also incorporated into Nepal. Within a short period of about two years the Yamuna river became Nepal’s western border.

Unlimited Responsibility

During almost the entire period of Bahadur Shah’s regency Bhakti Thapa had played a decisive role in conduct of unification campaign, which becomes apparent from the virtually unlimited authorities vested in him according to the LALMOHARS.

Even at a time when the Nepal’s western border was already Yamuna river and his headquarter was at Almora far away from the Capital, Bhakti Thapa continued to administer a vast region extending from Chepe-Marshyangdi to Yamuna river on matters related to mass mobilization, control of all military garrisons, deployment of local rajas, constructions of forts and fortification, building bridges and roads etc. He was authorized to receive foreign head of states or their representatives and hold negotiations with them and sign the agreements unless it is deemed necessary in his opinion to refer them to the Capital.

Administering Disbursement

It is most astonishing that Bhakti Thapa stationed at Almora was even vested in authority to disburse fund to support the Capital. In one of the LALMOHARS the king has` written not to cut the emolument of his brothers and nephews without his prior concurrence.

British-Nepal War and Independence

Nepal always remained an independent country whereas all counties of South Asia and most of the countries of Asia and Africa were subjected to the yoke of European countries because even 74 years old Bhakti Thapa and many other patriots of our country had sacrificed their life in battles fought against the foreign aggressors.

During the British-Nepal War according to Historian Vikramjit Hasrat the territory of then Nepal remained intact until Bhakti Thapa was alive only after that it started to contract.

Deothal Battle

Historian CB Khanduri quoting various contemporary British historians has written “The euphemism of the bravest of the braves had been used by Napoleon for Marshal Ney, whose bravery during the retreat from Moscow in 1812 was one of the highest. Brave les brave, said Napoleon of him. The British then used this citation for the Gorkhas during and `after the Anglo-Nepal War. Such was the bravery shown by Bhakti Thapa that the next legend of the Bravest of the Braves had been created on the day – 16 April 1815 at Deothal.”

History of Human Race and Bhakti Thapa

The legend of bravery and sacrifice of Bhakti Thapa has reached even far corner of the world. A website in the USA has even identified Bhakti Thapa as one of the world’s 600 topmost outstanding figures in the entire history of human civilization. Other names in that list are Marshal Zukov, Douglas MacArthur, Edmond Hillary, Charlemange, King Solomon, Sir Francis Drake, Queen Laxmi Bai of Jhansi etc.

References:

Khanduri C.B. Rediscovered History of Gorkhas: 1997, Delhi

Narahari Nath Sardar Vir Bhakti Thapa, Himabhaktakhanda Journal

Royal Nepalese Army: Nepalko Sainik Itihas, 1992

Shah Rishikesh: An Introduction to Nepal, 1975

Stiller Ludwig F. The Rise of the House of Gorkhas, 1995

History of Nepal

हाम्रो इतिहासको आरम्भ हिमवत्खण्ड

प्रदीप नेपाल

नेपालमा आदिवासी र जनजातिबारे धेरै विवाद भयो । यो बहसको थालनी गर्ने आफूलाई जनजातिको नेता भनाउनेहरू नै थिए । उनीहरू विद्वान थिए र अङ्ग्रेजी भाषामा दीक्षित पनि थिए । त्यसैले नेपालमा पनि संयुक्त राष्ट्रसङ्घ र ‘आर्टिकल’ १६९ भन्ने शब्दावलीको छ्यासछ्यास्ती प्रयोग भयो । एकाध वर्ष तिनले सबैलाई अलमल्याए । जनजाति र आदिबासी अविभाज्य समुदाय हुन् भन्नेसम्मको असत्यलाई अङ्ग्रेजीभाषी विद्वानहरूले नेपाली जनसमुदायका बीचमा खेतपाती गरे । उनीहरूले एउटै बनाएको असत्यलाई अङ्ग्रेजी पढेका अरुले, अङ्ग्रेजीमा ‘एण्ड’ भन्ने शब्दले ती दुई एउटै होइनन् भनेर छुट्याइदिएको छ भनेपछि बहस त सकियो । तर अङ्ग्रेजी पण्डितहरूले छरेको भ्रम अहिले पनि नेपाली मानसबाट बाहिर निस्केर गइसकेको छैन । भ्रममुक्त त आफैं हुने हो । तर सत्य के हो भने आदिवासी र जनजाति एउटै हुन् भनेर कतै भनिएको छैन । आदिवासी बसोबाससँग जोडिएको छ भने जनजाति विकाससँग जोडिएको छ ।

पछिल्ला दिनमा नेपाली विद्वानको विद्वता पढ्दा मलाई लाज लाग्न थालेको छ । यिनीहरू के साँच्चिकै नेपाली इतिहासकार हुन् ? मेरो विश्वास हो – यिनीहरूलाई आफ्नो देशको इतिहास थाहा छैन । यिनका ज्ञानका स्रोत भएका छन् सिल्वाँ लेभी लगायतका पश्चिमा इतिहासकारहरू । हाम्रो देशको इतिहास के पश्चिमाहरूले लेखिदिएको चौहद्दीभित्र मात्र छ ? तिनैबाट ज्ञान लिएका हाम्रा विद्वानहरूले त्यसैले राष्ट्रिय एकीकरणपछिका सबै नेपाली आदिवासी हुन् भनेर संविधानसभाले तोकेको होला । योभन्दा लज्जाजनक ज्ञान अरु के हुन्छ ? हाम्रै देशका विद्वान र राजनीतिक पण्डितका कारण हामी नेपालीको पाँच हजार वर्षको इतिहास पाँच सय वर्षमा झारियो ।

नेपाली किराँतको पात्रो नै पाँच हजार वर्षभन्दा पुरानो छ । नेपालका पहिला शासक किराँतहरू नै हुन् । त्यतिबेला शासित पनि किराँतीहरू नै थिए । ग्रेगोरियन क्यालेण्डर अनुसार दोस्रो शताब्दी दक्षिण पश्चिमबाट आएका लिच्छवीहरूले किराँतलाई पराजित गरेर नालाको डाँडो कटाइदिए । आरामले बसेका किराँतलाई पाटनको च्यासलमा पटापट काटेर मारिदिए । जो श्रमिक थिए, ती त लिच्छवी शासकलाई पनि चाहिन्थ्यो । त्यसैले ती किराँत श्रमिकहरूलाई लिच्छवी शासकले कजाएर खाने निर्णय गरे । अहिले पनि तिनीहरू ज्यापुका रूपमा काठमाडौंका भूमिपुत्र भएर बाँचिरहेका छन् । अर्थात् उनीहरू काठमाडौं उपत्यकाका आदिवासी हुन् । ज्यापु बाहेकका नेवारहरू आदिवासी होइनन् ।

सत्य धेरैलाई मन पर्दैन । किनभने सत्यले भ्रान्त धारणालाई स्वीकार गर्दैन । नेवार जाति वर्णाश्रम व्यवस्थामा हुर्किएको एक भाषिक समुदाय हो । अहिले पनि त्यसभित्र वर्णाश्रम व्यवस्था जीवित छ । भूमिगत कालमा हामी प्रायः दमाई टोलमा बस्थ्यौं । किनभने त्यहाँ सुरक्षा हुन्थ्यो । सवर्ण नेवारहरू त्यतातिर भेटिँदैनथे । कलेज पढ्दा मेरा धेरै नेवार साथीहरू थिए तर सबै सवर्ण । राजोपाध्याय र अमात्य, जोशी र श्रेष्ठ । तर साही र खड्गीसँग मेरो सम्पर्क थिएन । त्यसैले भूमिगतकालमा तिनै साही र खड्गीहरू मेरा आश्रयदाता भएका थिए । नेवारमा हिन्दू र बुद्ध धर्मालम्बी दुवै छन् । नेवार सधैं सत्तासँग जोडिएको जाति हो । बाहिरबाट आएका धेरै जातिसमूहहरू उपत्यका छिरेपछि नेवार भएका छन् । कायस्थ र झा पनि छन् नेवार समुदायमा । यी थर तराई क्षेत्रका हुन् । मैले रिमाल नेवार पनि भेटेको छु । यस्तो वर्णवादी समुदाय कसरी जनजाति हुनसक्छ ? अहिलेसम्म मैले बुझ्न सकेको छैन । भ्रममुक्त कुनै नेवार विद्वानले पछि यसको साङ्गोपाङ्गो इतिहास लेखिदिनु भए सबै नेपालीको ज्ञान बढ्ने थियो ।

नेपाली विद्वानहरूले छरेको अर्को भ्रम हो खसआर्य । अर्थात्, उनीहरूको विश्लेषणमा खस र आर्य एकै हुन् । योभन्दा ठूलो अज्ञान नेपालमा केही पनि छैन । नेपालका थोरै र भारतका धेरै विद्वानहरूले खस आर्यबीच आकास जमिनको फरक भएको ज्ञान पस्किएका छन् । ककेसियाबाट झण्डै छ हजार वर्ष पहिले एउटा समूह मानसरोवरको बाटो हुँदै जुम्ला झ¥यो । त्यसलाई नेपाली खस र त्यहाँको भूमिलाई खसान भनियो । यिनीहरूको कुनै धर्म थिएन । उनीहरू वर्षको एकपल्ट मस्टो पूजा गर्थे । मस्टो निराकार सत्य हो । आफ्नो फरक अस्तित्वलाई जनाउन उनीहरू वर्षको एकपल्ट गोठधूप गर्थे । यसलाई कुलपूजा पनि भनिन्छ । यो कुलपूजामा पनि कुनै देवी देवता हुँदैनन् । समूहमा भेला भएर, लोहोरोे जस्तो लाम्चो ढुंगाको पूजा गरेर उनीहरू कुलपूजा मनाउँछन् । किराँतसँगै यिनीहरूको नेपाल बसोबासको इतिहास पनि पाँच हजार वर्षभन्दा पुरानो छ । किराँत र खसहरूको नेपालमा उपस्थिति वैदिक कालभन्दा धेरै पुरानो छ । (पढ्नु होस्, खसजातिको इतिहास अनि खसजाति र कुलपूजा)

आर्यहरू इरानबाट पूर्वदक्षिण लागेका हुन् । सिन्धु घाँटीको उन्नत सभ्यतालाई पराजित गरेर दक्षिण लागेको समूह नै अहिलेका आर्य हुन् । इशाको पाँचौं शताब्दीमा आर्यहरू आफ्ना महागुरु शंकराचार्यसँग कैलाश दर्शन गर्दा पश्चिम नेपालको बाटो उत्तर लागे । शंकराचार्य आफ्नै पिठतिर फर्किए । तर बाठा आर्यहरूलाई नेपालको सुन्दर, शीतल, जडिबुटी र रसिला फलपूmलहरूले लोभ्यायो । युद्ध त उनीहरूको रगतमै थियो । आपूmभन्दा बलिष्ठ शक्तिलाई हराउने इन्द्रका सन्तानहरूले खस राज्य पटापट खाइदिए । खसहरू उनीहरूका लागि अनार्य थिए । शत्रु थिए ।

त्यसैले आर्यावर्त भन्ने शब्दले नेपाललाई वेष्टित गर्दैन । नेपालमा आर्य पनि छन् । अहिलेसम्म शक्तिशाली पनि छन् । राज्य गर्न राजाको सल्लाहकार या पुरोहित हुन सजिलो हुने भएकोले उनीहरूले आपूmलाई राजगुरुमा पदासिन गराउँदै राज्यको उपभोग गरे । यो परम्पराले सत्र शताब्दी खाइसकेको छ ।

आर्यहरूले नेपाल भित्रिँदासम्म एक डङ्गुर देवदेवीहरू जन्माइसकेका थिए । धर्मको आडमा शासन गर्न सजिलो हुन्छ भन्ने ज्ञान उनीहरूसँग थियो । भक्तिमार्गमा लाग्नेहरू स्वर्गमा बास पाउँछन् भन्ने शिक्षा यिनै आर्यजनले दिएका हुन् । हिन्दू धर्मका तेत्तीस कोटी देवता जन्माउने पनि यिनै आर्यपुरुष हुन् ।

चित्त नदुखोस् कसैको । सत्य तीतो हुन्छ । खसहरू ककेसियाबाट पूर्व लागेर जुम्ला छिरेका हुन् भने उपत्यकाबाट पूर्व खेदिएका किराँतहरू ह्वाङ्हो सभ्यताका उपज हुन् । बाँकी जनजातिका बारेमा लेख्नुपर्दा मलाई अलिक अप्ठेरो पनि लागेको छ । मगरहरू खस हुन् । नेपालमा सबैभन्दा लामो समय राज गर्ने समुदाय पनि मगर नै हो । तर, गुरुङ, तामाङजस्ता जातिहरू किराँतहरू आउनुभन्दा धेरै पछि, झण्डै झण्डै दक्षिणबाट नेपाल छिरेका आर्यहरूसँगै उत्तरबाट नेपाल छिरेका हुन् ।

मभन्दा बढी जान्नेबाट यसको खण्डन गरियोस् । संस्कृतमा एउटा भनाइ छ – वादे वादे जायते तìवबोध । अर्थात् छलफल गरेरै निष्कर्षमा पुगिन्छ । आग्रह र भक्तिले हामीलाई कहिल्यै निष्कर्षमा पु¥याउँदैनन् । खोजौं हाम्रा परम्पराहरू, वेद र मुन्धुमहरू, हामी सत्यमा नपुग्ने कुरै हुँदैन ।

मैले लेखेको नै निष्कर्ष होइन । यसलाई खण्डन गर्ने काम होस् विद्वानहरूबाट । नेपाल भारतवर्षको अंग होइन । जतिबेला भारत थिएन, त्यतिबेला पनि नेपाल थियो भन्ने सत्य महाभारतले पनि पुष्टि गर्दछ । महाभारतमा गान्धार थियो जो अहिले अफगानिस्तानमा पर्दछ । कुरुक्षेत्र भारतभित्रै थियो होला तर नेपाल भन्ने राज्य त्यतिबेला पनि एउटा स्वतन्त्र र आत्मनिर्भर राज्य थियो । किराँत त्यो राज्यको शासक थियो ।

अर्थात् आर्य र खसहरू एकापसमा गाभिने जाति समुदाय होइनन् । यिनी एकआपसमा जुध्ने शत्रु समुदाय हुन् । यिनलाई एकैठाउँ मिसाउनु भनेको घाम र हावा एउटै हुन् भन्नुजस्तै हो ।

Indigenous Magar people of Nepal

Indigenous Magar people of Nepal

Govind Prasad Thapa Magar, PhD, MA, BL, MPA, BA

Background

Nepal is a melting pot of many races and tribes. There are 126 castes and ethnic groups in Nepal. The prehistory and the early history of Nepal are largely unknown. The ancient origin and history of Magar people is shrouded in speculations. Despite several literary sources on Magars, the origin and history are replete with compounded speculations and inexplicit details. Information on Magars is speckled here and there. Some of these are incomplete, contradict each other, controversial, and quite often there are missing links in between the periods of history. This is so due to the dearth of substantial pieces of evidence, accurate, and chronological documents.

The Magars, the largest among the ethnic groups, is also the third-largest group in Nepal. At the time of the Nepal Census, 2011, the population of Magars was 1,887,733 (7.1% of the population of Nepal). They inhabit throughout the country with the highest population in the western part of the country—nicknamed as ‘Bahra Magarat’ ‘twelve land of Magars’ (821530), followed by the mid-western (484771) and central region (324869) of the country.

The Magars, the aboriginal stock of Nepal, are most undoubtedly Mongolian. From a linguistic point of view, there are three types of Magars living in Nepal. Kaike Magars living in Dolpa district who speak Kaike; Kham Magars who live in Atharha Magarat region and speak Kham; and the Magars who live in Bahra Magarat and speak Dhut Magar dialects. Many foreign anthropologists and sociologists have accomplished their studies or written books on all these three types of Magars. These Magars speak Tibeto-Burman dialect. Even within this Tibeto-Burman family Kham dialect is spoken by Magars in the Mid-Western region, Tarali or Kaike in Dolpa district of North-Western region, and Dhut, mostly in the West and Central part of Nepal. The population of Magars speaking these three Magar language is 2.98% of the total population of Nepal (2011 Census). Other remaining Magars speak Khas and Nepali. The Magar tongue-speaking population in 1952/54, 1991, 2001, and 2011 were 273780, 430264, and 770116, and 788,530 respectively. According to the number of people speaking a language, the Magar language is ranked as the seventh most widely spoken language in Nepal.

The study of languages has sometimes been useful in determining the historical settlements of the people in Nepal. As Witzel explains that the Magarat “extends from the Bheri in the west to Burhi Gandaki in the east and is fairly uniform in its nomenclature: river names invariantly end in –ri or –di. The names in –ri are found in the western part, that is in Kham territory, the names in –di in the eastern part. The River Ba-bai, to the south of the Bheri, may have a Magar name as well: bəy, bəyh is a Kham Magar word for ‘river’.”[i]

Magars as warriors

In the 1750s, Prithibi Narayan Shah, the “father of modern Nepal,” was consolidating the many petty kingdoms scattered across the land. For this task, he counted heavily upon his Magar soldiers. The outside world, however, came to know of the Magar only after the British began recruiting soldiers in Nepal for Gurkha regiments. The British quickly came to appreciate the Magars’ qualities and they became a major part of their Nepal (Gurkha) contingent.

The Gurkha soldiers have written their own history through bravery, by being the ‘Bravest of the Braves’. Five Magars—Kulbir Thapa Magar, Karna Bahadur Rana Magar, Lal Bahadur Thapa Magar, Tul Bahadur Pun Magar, and Netra Bahadur Thapa Magar have earned covetous Victoria Cross (VC) Medals and Dhan Singh Thapa Magar was awarded Param Vir Chakra (PVC) Medal for the gallantry and bravery.  “A shrewd critic of the war” had described the situation in those times in the following words: “Almost wherever there was a theatre of war Gurkhas were to be found, and everywhere they added to their name for high courage. Gurkhas helped to hold the sodden trenches of France in that first terrible winter and during the succeeding summer. Their graves are thick on the Penninsula, on Sinai, and on the plains of Tigris and Euphrates, and even among the wild mountains that border the Caspian Sea. And to those who know, when they see the map of that country of Nepal, there must always recur the thought of what the people of that country have done for us.”[ii]

 Marie Lecomte-Tilouine, who had been in Gulmi district of Nepal for her study, also refers to the military bravery of their (Magars) ancestors, claiming that it has not been recognized by the state, whatever high-caste leadership they helped to create. For example, in the history of the unification of Nepal, they picture themselves as heroes who built the country, without considering the possibility that they themselves cut the branch on which they sat by annihilating the power they had in petty kingdoms such as Palpa where they were numerically dominant and closely linked to the royal family. This situation is perhaps due to the fact that the petty kingdom which grew into a nation by swallowing its numerous neighbors was precisely a former Magar territory, where members of this group were numerous and closely related to the royal family through their cults. In a way, the Magars undoubtedly have the feeling that “Gorkha’s victory is also their own.”[iii]

Christoph also relates a similar stance of Magars’ proud record of martial exploits, and Magar officers serving in the armies of the early Gurkha kings as well as in those of the Newar states of the valley. In even earlier times, the Magar chieftains of Western Nepal seem to have faced Thakuri and Chetri chiefs on equal terms, and the same clan-names, such as for instance Thapa and Rana, occur among Magars and Chetris. Gurkha soldiers have earned fame across the globe. There can be no better account of the classic character and bravery of “the best soldiers of Asia”[iv] made by Hodgson. Everywhere Magars found they had also gained a reputation for honesty and hard work.[v]

 Origin and History

The yearning to know one’s origin and history is to not only establish one’s identity but also for sentimental attachments for the people and place. Knowing past history is something like backtracking into the primitive stages of society. This knowledge may not turn out payback or profits but it is a delight (or sometimes displeasure?) to know the past.

 There is a myth about the Magars. According to this, the first Magar was the youngest of four brothers. The eldest worshipped Kalika and became the ancestor of the Thakuris and the youngest sacrificed a pig to Bhairobi and hence became a Magar.[vi] “We have lived here always” types of claims have to be based on facts, not fictions, anything short of these could give out the prospect to remarks like “Magars’ history is lost in obscurity.”[vii]

Michael Witzel mentions “Magars were apparently known already to the Mahabharata as Maga, to the Puranas under the name of Mangara, and in a Nepalese copper plate inscription of 1100/1 A.D. as Mangvara.”[viii] Even in the heartland of the speakers of Western Nepali (the-gad area) indicate a Magar settlement that must have extended much more towards the west before the immigration of the Nepali-speaking Khasa/Khas in the Middle Ages.[ix] These details go together with the presumption that an original population, probably of Tibeto-Burman ethnicity, lived in Nepal some 2500 years ago.[x]

Many Magars think that they have occupied and used their land for centuries; have changed the very shape of the mountain upon which they live with their terraces; have worn footpaths connecting farmsteads deep into the soil and those stone resting platforms for wayfarers under the great roots of the banyan trees planted long ago to provide shade enclose. They feel they belong where they are, “and indeed they do”, for the people fit the land and the land fits them. And not only do the people live on their land as they feel they always have, but their many ‘godlings’ that control life and the resources upon which life is based are at home there also and must be treated with regular sacrifices of food.[xi] Some writers quote the local Magars that they “have no legends of origin from another place.” Contrary to this, M.S. Thapa Magar is of the opinion that “Magars came from East Pamir of China.”[xii]

Vansittart is of the view that “the aboriginal stock of Nepal is most undoubtedly Mongolian. This fact is inscribed in very plain characters, in their faces, forms, and languages.”[xiii] He is also of the opinion that “the principal seat of the Magars was most of the central and lower parts of the mountains between the Jhingrak (Rapti of Gorakhpur) and Marsiangdi Rivers. That they resided about Palpa from time immemorial is well known.”[xiv]

For Gary, the Magars were a Mongolian people who had migrated into Nepal in the predawn of history. Many of the other ethnic groups had legends that told how they had come to Nepal from Tibet or some other places, but not the Magars, for them, at least, history simply began and ended in Nepal. Nevertheless, who were the real Magars—the original ones? Gary found that most likely it was the Magar community which was to be found in Central Nepal in Palpa, Syangja, and Tanahu district.[xv]

Hodgson is also of the opinion that the original seat of the Magars in the Bara Mangranth, or Satahung, Payung, Bhirkot, Dhor, Garahung, Rising, Ghiring, Galmai, Argha, Khachi, Musikot, and Isma; in other words, most of the central and lower parts of the mountains, between the Bheri and Marsyandi Rivers. As is reflected by Landon, Magars seem to have spread widely, both east and west, after surrendering Palpa to invaders.[xvi] Modern events have spread the Magars and Gurungs over most parts of the present kingdom of Nepal.[xvii]

Hitchcock is of the view that “the tribe seems to have been part of a very ancient influx of Mongoloid, Tibeto-Burman speaking peoples into Nepal, probably from the north and east. It also seems probable, in view of differences between its northern and southern halves, that the tribe represents two different streams of migration.”[xviii] He finds differences “especially on each side of a line that divides their homeland roughly into northern and southern halves. The Magar tribe is split into a number of subtribes. In the southern half of the region, the sub-tribes that predominate almost to the exclusion of any others are the Ale, Rana, Thapa, and Burathoki Magars in the northern half of the area belong to different groups of sub tribes, Bura, Gharti, Pun, and Rokha.”[xix]

Pandit Sarat Chandra relates an incident that could have significant importance in this connection: “It was told of the upper Kangpa-chan valley that it was first peopled by Tibetans called Sharpa (Easterners), whose original home was in the mountains of Shar Khambu, or Eastern Kirata. Lower down the valley lived the Magar tribe from Nepal, whose chief extended his sway over the Sharpa, and exacted such oppressive taxes from them that they decided to avenge themselves. The Magar chief, going to the village of Kangpa-chan, he and his followers were murdered, and their bodies buried…Kangpa-chan people, who drank deeply, and fell asleep to awake no more. Nearly a thousand people were in this way done to death, and the babies were carried away by the queen’s followers. The place where this foul deed was done became known as Tongshong Phug, ‘the place which witnessed a thousand murders.’ ……The Tibetans finally expelled the Magars from the Kangpa-chan and Tambur valleys, and restored them to their former possessors.”[xx] Similarly, Iman Singh Chemjong also argues that “Magars are a composite group of Kirant and Monkhu and later on became Mangar.”[xxi] The references made by Sharad Chandra and Iman Singh Chemjong suggest to us the possibility of the existence of Monguor people in the Gansu province of China could also have a relationship with Magars of Nepal.

The origins of Kaike Magars end up with the mystical tales told and retold by local people. According to one of these stories, Kaike Magars were the sons of a woman who had fled from an unspecified village of Kalyal kingdom. She subsequently gave birth to her child, a son. The boy, when he grew up, captured an angel while she was bathing with her friends. As time went by, the son and his angel bride had three sons. These were the ancestors of the Budha, Rokaya, and Gharti clan. The origin of the fourth major clan is different. One of the three sons was a shepherd who kept losing the same female goat every day, so one day he followed her when she wandered away from the rest of the herd. He discovered that she was giving her milk to a baby boy living in the hollow part of a bamboo tree. He brought the baby home. This boy grew up and became the ancestor of the Jhankri clan.[xxii]

Much strikingly, Michael Oppitz also has a similar type of story about the origin of the Northern Magar-Kham- of Rukum district. He relates the three stories of the origin of Magars expressed in different media—one in the written document, the second original story is oral but seemingly fixed wordings and the third version recounted in ad-hoc oral rendering by one Magar of Taka. The three versions agree about the divine or semi-divine origin of the present-day clans or tribal sub-groups of the Northern Magar. The common themes of the three versions differently told and yet the same, rotate around the origin of the first ancestors, their first alliances, the primeval migration movements in their homeland, the origins of agriculture, and of hunting.[xxiii]

 Anne de Sales also relates something similar on the origin of Kham Magars. She recounts that the “members of the same clan believe that they share a common ancestor and common geographical origin, which, determines clan exogamy.  Each of the four Kham Magar clans-Pun, Gharti, Bura, Rokka-it was known by a second geographical designation, which locates its ancient site of residence.[xxiv]

Though all of this information could serve to establish the origin and history, however, the mystic tales of these kinds can appease neither the anthropologists nor Magars themselves. Owing to the absence of any written history and that, Magars had left their place of origin so long ago that the traces, though surely present, are not yet as easy to pin down. Therefore, it is difficult now to unravel many of the specific aspects of their history.

Religion and culture

The Magars worship nature, idols, spirits, and supernatural beings. This actually points out the belief in the natural phenomenon. In the rural parts of Nepal, even today, we come across a Than (shrine)–little rectangular pieces of gobar or cow dung, on a platform, with a varying number of evenly spaced depressions in the top, such as might be made with the tip of a finger inside the house–besides a path track, beneath a tree, under a large stone, beside a water spring, or in the corner of irrigated fields.   Sometimes these platforms are uncovered, resting on a patch of earth that has been hardened and made smooth with a mixture of mud, cow dung, and water. Most of them are inside little “rooms” that are open in front and have been made with flat stones. On occasions, too, one sees a small pavilion with a conical thatched roof made of straw, about the height of a man.

These Than are some of the places where one can make contact with supernatural beings of a particular kind—Gham(sun), Jun(full moon),  Pani(water), Bayu(wind), Kuldevata(family god), Sim Bai(devi), Nag (serpent), Jhankari (hunter), Bhoot-Pret-Masan(ghost, spirit), Boskshi(witch), Bandevi(forest goddess)– the beings who mean most to the majority of people because they are the ones who are effective in their lives and really make a difference. Coming to terms with these beings is part of their lives. These are beings of the land and the forces controlling health, growth, and reproduction. These beings, which may be either male, Devta, or female, Devi, are referred to as deities who eat bhog or food–mostly the newly spilled blood of a sacrificial animal – mostly the bhale(a rooster), and quite often the boka(he-goat), and pada(young male buffalo), and Sungur(pig). On many occasions, people offer panchbali—the sacrifice of five animals at a time.

The Puja (prayers) are made at places where it is believed that the godling lives. The sacrifices almost always are made by a young kumar(unmarried) boy, called pujari, who bathes and puts on a clean loincloth. After cleaning the ground with cow dung and water, thus setting it apart and making it acceptable for a holy purpose, he winds dhaja (kerchiefs) around a stone and sets it upright to represent the godling being honored. The dhaja represent the godling’s new clothing. The basic rationale throughout the puja is doing things for the godlings that will be pleasing: clothing him, feeding him, and surrounding him with pleasant things like dhoop (incense) and flowers. It is important to do these things in a properly sanctified place, with rituals conducted by a person who has prepared himself by bathing and who has not yet lost the extra purity believed to belong to the unmarried. This latter quality is especially important to female godlings but is appreciated by the males as well.

After making a cow dung platform for food offerings and setting it before the stone, the pujari decorates the Than(shrine) with turmeric, rice flour, bits of colored cloth, and flowers. Offerings that are then placed in the holes of the cow dung platform include rice flour fried in butter, puffed rice, rice mixed with water and sage, and cow’s milk. The godling also is honored by offerings of flowers and by the presence of fire in the form of a mustard oil lamp in a copper container-diyo (oil lamp.)

Just before the sacrifice, the pujari makes an incense of butter and sage and prays for whatever boon he wishes, pointing out that he is about to offer a sacrifice. The animal to be offered is sanctified by putting water, rice, and sage on the head, the animal then shakes it head or body which is taken as a sign that the animal has given its consent to be sacrificed. Then only it is beheaded. The head is placed before the stone and the blood is spurted in the Than(shrine). After this, the pujari prepares tika by mixing the blood of the sacrificed animal with some rice and places this onto the foreheads of those present. He also receives tika by having one of the worshippers do the same for him. As a gift for the pujari’s services, he gets the head of the sacrificed animal and whatever food has been brought as an offering. The final act of puja is cooking and eating the sacrificed animal that now has been shared with the godling.

On the other hand  historically the Tarangpur (Dolpa) Magars – neither a full-fledge Hindu caste nor unalloyed Tibetan Buddhists, but always at the mercy of outsiders, who were one or the other had to defer, serially or simultaneously, to both Hindu and Buddhist sources of power, prestige, and influence.”[xxv] For Fisher, “Buddhism and Hinduism are historical accretions. The Magars and other Tibeto-Burman groups were apparently neither Buddhist nor Hindu originally.”[xxvi] Like tribes elsewhere in South Asia, the Magars of Tarangpur “live on the fringes on Hindu society, but unlike most of these other tribal peoples, they also live on the fringes of Buddhist society. Tarangpur is culturally convoluted, geographically isolated, and socially ingrown.”[xxvii]


i Witzel, Michael, “Nepalese Hydronomy,” Harvard University, July 12, 1991, p. 18 http://nipforum.org/nepalese_hydronomy.pdf.

ii Landon, Perceval, Nepal, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, Madras, 1993 (First Published 1928), p. 243

iii Marie Lecomte-Tilouine, “The history of the messianic and rebel king Lakhan Thapa Magar : Utopia and ideology among the Magar”, CNRS, Paris, This is an augmented version of an article published in EBHR 19, 2000. It was complemented by field data gathered in Lakhan Thapa’s village and I wish to express my gratitude to the villagers of this place (Kahule village, in Bungkot vdc, Gorkha district) for their warm welcome and their cooperation.

[iv] Hodgson, Brian H., Essays on the Languages, Literature, and Religion of Nepal and Tibet, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, Madras, 1991 (First Published 1874), Part II, p. 40

4Christoph von Furer-Haimendorf, “Chetri caste of Nepal”, in Christoph von Furer-Haimendorf, (Ed), Caste & Kin in Nepal, India & Ceylon, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1978, p. 17

[vi] Christoph, op.cit.

[vii] Hitchcock, op.cit., p.4

[viii] Witzel, op.cit.

[ix] ibid

[x] http://reference.allrefer.com/country-guide-study/nepal/ancient nepal/

[xi] George and Louise Spindler, in  John T. Hitchcock, The Magars of Banyan Hill; Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966, Foreword, pp. vii-viii

[xii] Thapa Magar, M..S., Prachin Magar ra Akkha Lipi, Publisher Shrimati Durgadevi Thapa Magar, Briji Prakashan,(First Publication 2049, Second Publication 2059), p. 3

[xiii] Vansittart, Eden, The Gurkhas, (based upon the ‘Notes on Nepal’, 1895 AD and ‘Notes on Gurkhas’ 1890 AD), Anmol Publications, New Delhi, Re-print 1993, p. 6

[xiv] ibid, p. 184

[xv] Shepherd, Gary, Life with Magars, p. 11

[xvi] Landon, Perceval, Nepal, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, Madras, 1993 (First Published 1928), p. 243

[xvii] Hodgson, Brian H., Essays on the Languages, Literature, and Religion of Nepal and Tibet, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, Madras, 1991 (First Published 1874), Part II, p. 40

[xviii] Hitchcock, John T., The Magars of Banyan Hill; Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966,  p. 2

[xix] ibid p. 4

[xx] Das, Sarat C. (1902). Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet. John Murray, London, Albemarle Street

[xxi] Chemjong, Iman S. (2003). History and Culture of Kirat People (Fourth Edition). Lalitpur: Kirat Yakthung Chumlung [First edition 1967].

[xxii] Fisher, James F. , Trans-Himalayan Traders: Economy, Society, & Culture in Northwest Nepal, Motilal Banarasidass Publishers Pvt, Ltd., New Delhi, India, Reprint 1997, pp. 2-3

[xxiii] Oppitz, Michael,  “The Wild Boar and The plough: origin Story of the Northern Magar”, Kailash, Vol X, No. 3-4, Kathmandu, Nepal, 1983, pp. 187

[xxiv] Anne de Sales, “The Kham Magar Country, Nepal: Between Ethnic Claims and Maoism”, (translated by David N. Gellner), European Bulletin of Himalayan Research, 19: 41-72, 2000

[xxv] Fisher, James F. , Trans-Himalayan Traders: Economy, Society, & Culture in Northwest Nepal, Motilal Banarasidass Publishers Pvt, Ltd., New Delhi, India, Reprint 1997, pp. 2-3

[xxvi] ibid p. 208

[xxvii] ibid p.14

About Magar’s History

The Magars came from the north but not from the south. Period. I mean there is no question about it. 

Dear All,
Historical linguistic evidence attest that the Magars came from the north but it still remains unclear as to what part of Asia in the north did the Magars enter the Himalayan region from ? 
Please read below a text in Nepali also.
Jhorle and thank you. 

B. K. Rana & Langhali Pariwar Cambridge,
Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02138
United States of America.
Email:<langhalipariwarcambridge@gmail.com>, 

दक्षिण एसियाको इतिहासमा मगर जातिको प्रचीनताको प्रश्न

डिसेम्बर ३०, २०१३
[आज २१सौं शताव्दीसम्म आइपुग्दा पनि सम्पूर्ण मगर समाज अझै विकासशील अवस्थामा नै रहदा यस समाजका बारेमा अलिकति चिन्तन मनन गरिदो रहेछ यसै पनि | कम्तिमा पनि मलाइ त यस्तै हुने गर्दछ`| तर, प्राज्ञिक अभ्यासमा यसप्रकार खास जाति विशेषको आग्रह गरिनु वा कुरा उठाउनु आफैमा उपयुक्त-अनुपयुक्त जे भए पनि दक्षिण एशियामा मगर जातिको प्राचीनता के र कति भन्ने बारेमा सरोकार राख्दै आएका कारण पनि यसबारेमा धेरथोर लेख्ने प्रयत्न गरेको छु मैले आज |]

 लेखक बि. के. राना

दक्षिण एसियाको हिमाली मुलुक नेपालमा विभिन्न जातजातिका मानिसहरु बसोबास गर्दछन् | उनीहरु मद्धे मगर जाति मुलुकको एक प्रमुख जाति हो | सरकारी तथ्यांकका हिसाबले  भन्ने हो मगर जाति गौरवमय इतिहासको धनी नेपालका क्षत्री र ब्राह्मण पछि क्रमश: तेश्रो सबभन्दा ठूलो जनसंख्या भएको जाति हो | तर, सम्बन्धित विद्वान् वा समुदायका अगुवाहरुले  यो सरकारी तथ्यांकलाइ सही मानेका छैनन् | खैर, यस विषयमा कुरा गर्दै गरौला पछि कुनै अर्को लेखमा | आज एउटा छुट्टै प्रसंग, छुटै चर्चा गरौ जस्तो  लाग्यो |

आफु मगरको सन्तति भएका नाताले यो लेखकलाई पनि आफ्नो जातिको इतिहास, भाषा र संस्कृतिका बारेमा धेरथोर चासो हुनु स्वाभाविकै हो | यसरी कुरा गर्दा वा सरोकार राखिदा जातिवादी होईन्छ होईन्न त्यसबारे  यस लेखकले कुनै सरोकार राखेकै छैन किनभने आफ्नो जातिको अर्थात् अझ स्पस्ट भाषामा भन्ने हो भने आफ्नो पुर्खाको गौरवमय इतिहास, छुट्टै स्वतन्त्र भाषा र विशिष्ट संस्कृति यसै पनि सधै प्रिय र मीठो लाग्दो रहेछ | यस्तै लागेको छ मलाइ पनि | र, यस्ता कुरा उठाउनु ठीक हो होइन त्यसबारे छुट्टै वहस गर्न सकिएला |

आज २१सौं शताव्दीसम्म आइपुग्दा पनि सम्पूर्ण मगर समाज अझै विकासशील अवस्थामा नै रहदा यस समाजका बारेमा अलिकति चिन्तन मनन गरिदो रहेछ यसै पनि | कम्तिमा पनि मलाइ त यस्तै हुने गर्दछ`| तर, प्राज्ञिक अभ्यासमा यसप्रकार खास जाति विशेषको आग्रह गरिनु वा कुरा उठाउनु आफैमा उपयुक्त-अनुपयुक्त जे भए पनि दक्षिण एशियामा मगर जातिको प्राचीनता के र कति भन्ने बारेमा सरोकार राख्दै आएका कारण पनि यसबारेमा धेरथोर लेख्ने प्रयत्न गरेको छु मैले आज |

त्यसो त मगर जातिको मानवशास्त्रीय अध्ययन-अनुसन्धान स्वयम् सम्बन्धित विद्वानहरु अर्थात् ‘नेटिभ लेखक’हरुबाट हुदा सार्है राम्रो हुने हो तर त्यस्तो भै सकेको जस्तो लाग्दैन | खुद हाम्रा मगर जानिफकार वा अग्रजहरुबाट नै सूचना र तथ्य वा प्रमाण हासिल गरेर बाहिरका अरुहरुले केही अध्ययन गरिदिएकाछन वा लेखिदिएका त्यो पनि राम्रै भएको छ | अनि हामी तत्त अध्ययन-अनुसन्धान बढी रुचिका साथ पढ्ने गर्दछौ | वस्तुतः हामी त्यस प्रकारको अध्ययन-अनुसन्धानलाइ स्वीकार गर्दछौ, गर्दै  आइरहेका पनि छौ |

हिमाली क्षेत्रका सबैजसो आदिवासी जनजातिका कुरा यस्तैयस्तै छन | आफ्नो कुरा बाहिरका अरुले लेखिदिएका छन | यस्तो स्थितिमा ति बाहिरियाहरुले गरेका व्याख्यान विश्लेषणमा यताउता भएका खण्डमा अफ्ठ्यारो हुन् जानु स्वाभाविकै हो | यस्तो चाहिँ एकजना जापानी विद्वान् जिरो कवाकिताले लेखेका “पहाडका मगर जाति र उनका छिमेकीहरु  : गङ्गा नदीको समथर मैदान आसपासका पहाडी जातिहरु – १९७४ ” (THE HILL MAGARS AND THEIR NEIGHBOURS: HILL PEOPLES SURROUNDING THE GANGES PLAIN – 1974 ] नामको किताबमा अलिकति नमिल्ने खालका कुराहरु पनि परेकाले त्यसबारे विरोधको स्वर सन् १९९० को दशकतिर पनि उठेको थियो |
अब यसकुरालाइ यहि छाडेर मगर जातिको प्राचीन इतिहासका कुरा गरौ | मगर जातिको प्राचीन इतिहास के कस्तो थियो त ?

महाभारत र पुराणमा मगरका कुरा ?

केही भारतीय तथा पाश्चात्य विद्वान हरुले  मगर जातिको उल्लेख महाभारतमा पनि भएको कुरा औल्याएका छन् | विश्व प्रशिद्ध  हार्वार्ड  विश्वविद्यालयका प्राध्यापक तथा  विख्यात इन्डोलजिष्ट माइकल वित्ज़लका अनुसार मगरहरु महाभारतकालमा नै चिरपरिचित थिए भन्ने लेख्नु भएको छ | किनभने महाभारत महाकाव्यको भाग ६ अध्याय १२ का ३३ र ३४ श्लोकहरुमा हालको हाम्रो मगर जातिलाइ सम्बोधन हुन सक्ने क्रमश: ‘मगाश र मगा” भन्ने दुइ नाम शव्दहरु आएका छन् | जस्तै :-

३३. तत्र पुण्या जनपदाश चत्वारॊ लॊकसंमताः

मगाश च मशकाश चैव मानसा मन्दगास तथा

३४. मगा बराह्मणभूयिष्ठाः सवकर्मनिरता नृप

मशकेषु तु राजन्या धार्मिकाः सर्वकामदाः

अब यहाँ कुरा के पनि आउछ भने स्वयम महाभारतको प्राचीनता के कति हो त ? यसबारेमा भारतीय विद्वानहरुको मतानुसार महाभारतको युद्ध ३१३९ इशा पूर्व अर्थात् ५,१५१ वर्ष पहिले भएको थियो | तर यो मितिमा विवाद रहेको छ हालसम्म पनि | पाश्चात्य विद्वानहरु के अनुमान लगाउदछन् भने महाभारत महाकाव्य ९०० इशा पूर्व अर्थात् चानचुन २९०० वर्ष पहिले लेखिएको हो | ति माथि उल्लेख भएका “मगाश र मगा” ले आजका मगर जातिलाइ सम्बोधन गर्ने नगर्ने बारेमा थप विश्लेषण  हुनु बान्छनीय छ | यसबारे छुट्टै चर्चा पछि गरिने छ |

यसबाहेक ‘मंगर’ नाम शव्द कुर्म पुराण को ४९:३६ सौ श्लोक र विष्णु पुराणको २. ४. ६९ श्लोकमा पनि प्रयोग भएको छ | भारतीय विद्वान् राधाकृष्ण चौधरीले यी पुराणहरुमा आएका ‘मंगर’ शव्दले हालका मगरहरुलाई बुझाउने कुरा लेख्नु भएको छ | (वित्ज़ल  1993 :226)

तर यी माथि भनिएका महाभारत, कुर्म पुराण वा विष्णु पुराणमा वर्णित ‘मगाश’, ‘मगा’  वा ‘मंगर’ले  हालका मगर जातिलाइ नै बुझाउदछन भन्नेमा यसै हो भन्ने अवस्था छैन किनभने संस्कृत भाषाको ‘मग’ शव्दबाट यीमाथिका शव्दहरु व्युत्पन्न भएकाछन् वा बनेकाछन्  । र, यो  ‘मग’  शव्दले सूर्यको पूजारी मुख्य रुपमा ब्राह्मणहरुद्वारा  मात्र बसोबास गरिएको भनिएको शकद्वीपका  वासिन्दालाइ  बुझाउदछ । सूर्यको पूजारी हुनु रब्राह्मणहरुको वाहुल्य भएको प्राचीन शकद्वीपमा  आजका मगरहरुका पूर्वजहरु बसोबास गर्दथे भन्न का निम्ति यो मात्र कुनै गतिलो आधार हुनसक्दैन । त्यसमा एउटा मात्र विचारणीय पक्ष के छ भने उही ‘मग’ शव्दबाटबन्ने अर्को शव्द  ‘मगस’ले  चाहिँ शकद्वीपका लडाकु  जातिलाइ पनि जनाउदछ (मोनियर 1899: 772)। मगर जाति वस्तुतः एउटा लडाकु जाति पनि हो । तर, यसकै आधारमा मात्र यो कुरोको निरुपण हुन् सक्दैन किनभने आजका मगर जातिको तीनै किसिमका भाषाहरु भोट-बर्मेली परिवारका भाषाहरु हुन् भने संस्कृत भारोपेली परिवारको भाषा हो। यहाँ भाषिक भिन्नताका कारण पनि यस कुरालाई स्वीकार गर्ने ठाउ छैन।

 प्राचीन ‘मगध’ राज्यका बासिन्दाहरु वर्णाश्रम व्यवस्था मान्दैनथे । त्यसै हुनाले पनि त्यसले माथीको कुरालाइ स्पष्ट गर्दैन ।न त सो मगधमा पर्ने हालको ‘मुङ्गेर’ जिल्लाले नै  स्पष्ट गर्दछ (झा 2004: 82) । प्राचीन मगधवासीहरु गीत गाइहिड्ने ‘गाईने जस्ता’ थिए पनि भनिएको पनि छ  (मोनियर 1899: 772)। त्यो पनि आजका मगरहरुको परम्परा होइन ।

तिब्बत र मंगोरका कुरा

तिब्बतीहरु आफुहरुलाई ‘बो’ भन्दछन । यो तिब्बत भन्ने शव्द  ‘तिबे ‘ वा ‘थिबे’ ( Cf : नेपालका ‘थेबे’ थरका लिम्बुहरुसंग तुलना गर्नुहोस)बाट आएको छ । ज्यान्बेइ (Xianbei)  भाषामा तिब्बतीहरुलाई ‘तिबे ‘ वा’थिबे’ भनिन्छ । त्यो ‘तिबे ‘ सम्भवत: तोबा ज्यान्बेइ (Tuoba Xianbei)  को  नामबाट आएको पनि हुनसक्छ ।तोबा ज्यान्बेइ (Tuoba Xianbei)  ले दक्षिण लियांगको स्थापना गरेका हुन् भन्ने विश्वास गरिन्छ । यसमा ‘छागनमंगोर’ अर्थात सेता मंगोल (“Chaghan Monguor”or White  Mongols ) को कुरा गर्नु पर्ने हुन्छ । यसमा ‘मंगोर’ भन्ने शव्द ‘मुरोंग ज्यान्बेइ’ (Murong Xianbei) भाषाबाट  बनेको हो भन्ने भनाइ छ । फ्लेमिश क्याथोलिकमिशनरी लुई स्क्य्रामले  सन् 1911 -1922 का बीच यो ‘मंगोर’  वा ‘मंगोल’ भन्ने शव्दलाई अन्तर्राष्ट्रियकरण गरेका हुन् ।

जहाँ सम्म ‘मंगोल’ जातिको कुरा छ ; यही ‘मंगोल’बाट  ‘मंगर वा मगर’ बनेको देखिन्छ । ‘मंगोर’ भाषामा ‘मंगोलियाली भाषा’को अन्तिम  ‘ल’ अर्थात ‘मंगोल’को ‘ल’लाइ  ‘र’ उच्चारण गरिन्छ। यसरी  मगर शव्दको व्युत्पत्ति भएकोदेखा पर्दछ सरसर्ती हेर्दा । तर लुई स्क्य्राम’ भन्दा  सय वर्ष वा सो भन्दा पनि पहिले नै कर्णेल  कर्कप्याट्रिकले नेपालका ‘मगर’हरुबारे उल्लेख गरिसकेका हुन् (कर्कप्याट्रिक 1811 :249)। उनले ‘मुङ्गर’ वा ‘मंगर’ लेखेका छन् ।

एउटा चाख लाग्दो कुरा के पनि छ भने शाह राजाहरुको कुनै पनि लालमोहरहरुमा आजका सम्पूर्ण मगर जातिको ‘जात जनाउने’ शव्द ‘मगर’ भने कहिँ कतै उल्लेख छैन । बरु, मगर जातिका बिभिन्न थरहरु जस्तै: राना , थापा ,खड्का, आले, रोका , मास्की, ग्यामी, पुलामी, भुषाल,  थापासारु, अर्घुम्ले, त्रोक्छाकी, जैसिराना, थापाझेडी , थापारखाल,  थापासिन्जाली , अस्लामी, गरन्जा, आले त्रोक्छाकी, तर्कुले राना’ इत्यादी  भने बारम्बार प्रयोग गरिएको छ ।(क्रमश:)

सन्दर्भ सूचि :

 क) विभिन्न लालमोहरहरु
ख) योगी, नरहरिनाथ – 2022: इतिहासप्रकाशमा सन्धिपत्र संग्रह  भाग -1
ग) रेग्मी, शारदाप्रसाद – वि. शं  2009 : गोर्खावंशावाली
a) Jha, D. N. – 2004: Early India, A Concise History . Manohar Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi.
b) Kirkpatrck , Colonel – 1811 : Account of the  Kingdom of Nepaul : London
c) Monguor : Wikipedia
d) Monier-Williams, Monier – 1899: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary – Oxford
e) Toffin, Gerrad – 1993: Nepal Past & Present – CNRS, Paris
https://sites.google.com/site/rana1616/daksina-esiyako-itihasama-magara-jatiko-pracinatako-prasna

बलाल मगर सम्मेलन २०७६

balal bhela

२०७६ कार्तिक ३० गते शनिवारका दिन बुटवल सुक्खानगर स्थित मगर संघको भवनमा नेपालका विभिन्न स्थानहरुमा बसोवास गर्ने बलाल मगर हरुको भेला भएको थियो । उक्त अवसरमा गुल्मी जिल्लाको दह गाउँ, झारखर्क, फोक्सीँङ, जुभुँङ, वामी टक्सार, नेटा सिमले, भार्से, खुनिया, तमघास, अर्घाखाँची, वाङलुङ को राङसिङ, किटेनी, रुपन्देही जिल्लाको टिकुलीगढ, तथा ललितपुर जिल्ला, आदि बाट भेलामा जम्मा भएका थिए ।

यि स्थानहरु बाहेक गुल्मीको लुङदी, मल्लेङ, पुर्तिघाट, भुर्टुङ, खडगकोट, चैया, र मुसीकोट, पाल्पा जिल्लाको वौंघा, नवलपरासी जिल्लाको देउचुली हरुमा बलाल मगरहरुको बाक्लो बसोवास रहेको बुझिन्छ ।

यस सम्मेलनले नेपाल बलाल मगर परिवारको १३ सदस्य केन्द्रिय कार्य समिति समेत चयन गरेको छ। दान बहादुर बलालको नेतृत्वमा निर्वा्चित यस समितिले आफ्नो भाषा, संस्कार र संस्कृति को जगेर्ना गर्नु का साथै सम्पुर्ण बलाल परिवारको विकास र समृद्धि को क्षेत्रमा एक्यवद्ध भइ लाग्न सम्पुर्ण बलाल मगर परिवार मा हार्दिक अपिल समेत गरेको छ ।

“Autopsy of An Ode to the Gurkhas”

Pun, Santa. B. (2062 BS). “Autopsy of An Ode to the Gurkhas”
in Shodhmala, Year 1, No. 1. Published by Magar Studies Center,
Lalitpur, Nepal. pp.17-32.
Annotation by: Dr. Govind Prasad Thapa
The writer has minutely uncovered the details of history related
to ‘bravest of the brave-Gurkhas’. He narrates some of the historical
events that took place in connection with the Gorkha Durbar and Magar
people in the past. He refers to eminent scholar Mahesh Chandra
Regmi’s observation, “At least seven among the 49 Kajis of this period
(1768-1814 AD) were Magars of the Rana and Thapa clans, while one
Narsing was a Gurung.” The writer adds, “This indicates that in the
critical expansion phase of Nepal, prior to the Anglo-Nepal war of
1814-1816, “at least” fifteen percent of the Kajis were Magars.”
The writer adds that Ran Bahadur’s assassination in 1806 gave
Bhimsen Thapa the opportunity to eliminate all his potential rivals.
The writer again quotes Regmi, “The turbulent period of following
Ran Bahadur’s assassination marked the virtual end of Magar-Gurung
representation at the Kaji level. Narsing Gurung was beheaded, while
the four Rana-Magar Kajis were removed from their posts. The six
Kajis in the 1808 list include only one Magar, Devadatta Thapa.”
The article further covers some of the historical events-such as
the Lahore connection—how Gurkhas employment in British Army
began; how “dissatisfied officers like Bal Bhadra along with 200 other
volunteers going to Lahore to join the Punjab leader, Ranjit Singh, rather
than serve the Nepalese government they could not reconcile with or the
British they fought against.” The article covers other historical events
those that have had historical impact in the history of Nepal.

मगर अध्ययन केन्द्रकाे गतिविधि

विगत पन्ध्र वर्ष अघि देखि मगर अध्ययन केन्द्रले नेपाली समाजको विविध पक्षहरूमा गहन अध्ययन–अनुसन्धान गर्ने महत्वाकांक्षी लक्ष्य आगाडि सारेर कार्यान्वयनको मार्गमा हिडिरहेको छ । यसै अनुरुप प्रत्येक वर्ष ‘शोधमाला’ जर्नल तथा शोधमूलक पुस्तकहरू प्रकाशन गर्दै आइरहेको छ । यस पटक मगर जातिको उत्पत्ति, इतिहास, भाषा, संस्कृति, सामाजिक, आर्थिक तथा राजनैतिक क्षेत्रको अध्ययन–अनुसन्धानका लागि उपयोगी सामाग्री ‘नेपालका आदिवासी मगरः सन्दर्भ विवरणिका’ यहाँहरूको हातमा पु¥याउन सफल भएका छौं । प्रस्तुत पुस्तक प्रकाशनको आवश्यकता रहेको कुरा वि. सं. २०७२ माघ २९ गतेका दिन मगर अध्ययन केन्द्र र नेपाल प्रज्ञा–प्रतिष्ठानको संयुक्त कार्यक्रमको अवसरमा उठेको थियो । ‘मगर जातिको उत्पत्ति र नामाकरण’ विषयक उक्त कार्यक्रमको समापन पश्चात मगर अध्ययन केन्द्र र नेपाल प्रज्ञा–प्रतिष्ठानको सहकार्यमा ‘मगर अध्ययन समिति’ गठन गर्ने सल्लाह भएको थियो । सोही अनुरुप मगर अध्ययन केन्द्रका अध्यक्ष डा. गोविन्द प्रसाद थापाज्यूको संयोजकत्वमा प्रा. डा. जिवेन्द्रदेव गिरी, प्रा. डा. डिल्लीराज दाहाल, प्रा. डा. हेमाङ्गराज अधिकारी, प्राज्ञ दिनेशराज पन्त, प्राज्ञ विष्णु प्रभात, प्राज्ञ लोक बहादुर थापा, बमकुमारी बुढा, डा. मीन श्रीस, विष्णु कुमार सिङ्जाली र प्रतिभा पुन सदस्य रहने गरी एघार सदस्यीय ‘मगर अध्ययन समिति’ को गठन गरियो । समितिकोे पहिलो बैठकले मगर जातिको उत्पत्ति र इतिहासको अध्ययन अनुसन्धान थालनी गर्नु अघि एउटा सन्दर्भ विवरणिका तयार पार्ने निर्णय गरे बमोजिम यस कार्यको थालनी भएको हो । सीमित स्रोत–साधन र समयको परिधिभित्र रहेर पनि मगर अध्ययन केन्द्रले मगर जातिसँग सम्वन्धित विविध विषयमा लेखिएका सन्दर्भ सामग्रीहरूको टिप्पणी तथा सन्दर्भ सूची संग्रह गरी यो पुस्तकको आकार दिन सफलता प्राप्त गरेको छ । यस पुस्तकमा कतिपय सामग्रीहरू सजिलै उपलब्ध नहुने र उठाएका विषयहरूमा गम्भीर छलफलको आवश्यकता रहेका कारण पनि पाठकहरूको सुविधाका लागि सन्दर्भ विवरणिकाको आवश्यकता भन्दा बढी नै सूचनाहरू उद्धृत गरेर राखिएका छन् । यसबाट मगर जातिबारे अध्ययन–अनुसन्धान गर्ने शोधार्थीहरू र मगर जातिबारे बुझ्न चाहने सबैलाई सहयोग पुरयाउने छ ।

पाल्पा राज्यको इतिहास

घिमिरे, विष्णुप्रसाद. (२०६९). पाल्पा राज्यको इतिहास. भाग १. दो. संस्क. चितवनः श्रीमती पद्मा घिमिरे ।
टिप्पणीः डा. मीन श्रीस मगर

आठ खण्ड र ३०१ पृष्ठ संख्या रहेको यस पुस्तकको पहिलो खण्डमा पाल्पा राज्यका ऐतिहासिक सामग्री, भौगोलिक स्थिति र जनजातिका वारेमा वर्णन गरिएको छ । गण्डकी माहात्यमा उल्लेख गरिएअनुसार मुकुन्द सेन प्रथमको
समयमा पाल्पा राज्यको सीमाना पूर्वमा वराहा क्षेत्रको अन्त्यसम्म (भारतको पूर्णिया, जलपाइगुडीसम्म), पश्चिममा रुरुक्षेत्र, उत्तरमा मुक्तिक्षेत्र (मुस्ताङ भोट) र दक्षिणमा हरिहरक्षेत्र (गंगा किनार, मुजहपुर र छपरा जिल्ला) सम्म
फैलिएको थियो । मगरात देशको नामले प्रसिद्ध पाल्पा भेगलाई मगरहरूकै आदि बासस्थान भएको र अन्य जातिका मानिसहरू पछि आएको मानिन्छ । प्राचीन सेन वंशावलीमा पाल्पाली सेनका पुर्खा अभय राणाले मकवानपुरका मगर राजा गजलक्ष्मणसिंहकी छोरी कान्तिमतीसँग र मुकुन्द सेन प्रथमले पार्कोटे मगर राजाकी छोरी सुवर्णमालासँग विधिवत विवाह गरेको उल्लेख गरिएकाले सेन र मगर समान जातिका जस्ता देखिन्छन् । यसैगरी काठमाडौंको केशर पुस्तकालयमा रहेको नारद स्मृतिमा पनि ‘मगर राजा मुकुन्द सेन’ भन्ने उल्लेख गरिएको पाइन्छ भनी यसै खण्डमा वर्णन गरिएको छ । दोस्रो खण्डको राजनैतिक शीर्षकमा पनि मगर जातिका बारेमा उल्लेख गरिएको छ । पाल्पा क्षेत्रका अनेक थुममा शासन गर्ने मगर मुखियाहरूलाई जितेर सेनवंशी शासन स्थापना भएको थियो । नारद
स्मृतिमा उल्लेख गरिएअनुसार पाल्पाका मगर राजा मुकुन्द सेन प्रथमले नेपाल उपत्यकामा चार पल्टसम्म आक्रमण गरेको कुरा यसै खण्डमा वर्णन गरिएको छ । खण्ड तीनमा प्रशासनिक व्यवस्था, खण्ड चारमा वैदेशिक सम्बन्ध, खण्ड पाँचमा समाज र संस्कृति, खण्ड ६ मा आर्थिक जीवन, खण्ड सातमा कला र  स्तुकला तथा खण्ड आठमा उपसंहार प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । परिशिष्ट खण्डमा पाल्पाली सेन राज्यकालीन महत्त्वपूर्ण अभिलेखहरू राखिएको छ ।
वि.सं. २०३३ सालदेखि त्रिभुवन क्याम्पस पाल्पामा इतिहास विषय प्राध्यापन गर्ने क्रममा लेखक डा. विष्णुप्रसाद घिमिरेले यस पुस्तकको प्रथम संस्करण वि.सं. २०४५ सालमा तयार पार्नुभएको थियो । ऐतिहासिक पाल्पा राज्य
र मगर जातिका बारेमा अध्ययन अनुसन्धान गर्न चाहनेहरूका लागि यो पुस्तक एउटा महङ्खवपूर्ण सन्दर्भ सामाग्री हुने देखिन्छ ।